By Jessica Cerretani
Sam and Alyssa Robb are no strangers to the experience of
premature birth. Their son Baylor, now age four, was born at just 26 weeks.
Baylor isn't alone: He's one of more than half a million infants born
prematurely every year.
The ideal length of a pregnancy is 39 weeks. This amount of
time allows your baby's brain, lungs, heart and other organs to develop more
fully. It also gives him or her the chance to gain an optimal amount of weight
Any baby born earlier than 37 weeks is considered premature,
according to the March of Dimes. As you might
imagine, premature infants, or "preemies" as they are commonly called, are born much smaller than
full-term babies. At 26 weeks, Baylor Robb weighed just over 2 pounds.
Coming into the world earlier than expected can put infants
at risk for a variety of health concerns, too. Some of these health problems
are temporary, while others can become lifelong issues. For example,
prematurity can make a baby more likely to develop conditions such as:
|Though born premature, |
Baylor Robb is now thriving.
the inability to produce enough red blood cells to carry oxygen
throughout the body
yellowing of the eyes and skin caused when the liver isn't functioning
of prematurity, an abnormal growth of blood vessels in the eye, which
can lead to vision loss
ductus arteriosus, a problem that occurs when the connection between
two main blood vessels near the heart doesn't close properly, which may
ultimately lead to heart failure
hemorrhage, or bleeding in the brain
including pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis
Premature birth can also pose a range of respiratory
problems, including apnea, respiratory distress syndrome, and bronchopulmonary
dysplasia. When preterm babies' tiny lungs aren't yet fully developed, they may
need to be treated with a ventilator, a machine that helps them breathe.
Because of such concerns, most preemies must spend time in the hospital's
neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), where they can receive round-the-clock
The risk of complications from premature birth depends on
the individual pregnancy, and it's difficult to predict how they will affect
each baby, says the Robbs' physician, Hyagriv N. Simhan, M.D., chief of the
Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine at Magee-Womens Hospital of UPMC.
"These infants' developing organ systems are immature and fragile,"
he explains. "It's a very, very delicate time period for babies."
Indeed, Baylor's twin brother, Hudson, received the same
treatment but suffered collapsed lungs and a possible brain bleed and died just
two days after he was born. Yet Baylor didn't experience any major
complications and is today a healthy toddler.
This uncertainty makes understanding preterm birth all the
more crucial. Some factors clearly increase your odds of delivering early. Your
pregnancy is considered high risk if you are carrying multiples (twins,
triplets, or more), if you previously had a preterm delivery, or if you have a
family history of premature birth (if your sister delivered before 37 weeks,
Yet there's much we don't still know about prematurity—and
this need for more knowledge is fueling exciting research at Magee into its
possible causes and prevention.
"The analogy I make is that we don't make any strides
towards stopping death from heart attacks by only treating heart attacks when
they happen," says Dr. Simhan. "The real opportunity in heart disease
is prevention—and the same thing is true with preterm birth. Our research is
involved in preventing prematurity by understanding environmental and genetic
contributors and using that information to understand which women are at
As we continue to expand our insight into premature birth,
the best thing expectant mothers can do is to be proactive in their care.
"Right now, there isn't a lot women can do themselves
to prevent premature birth," explains Dr. Simhan. "That loss of
control can be frustrating, but everyone can participate in their own prenatal
That means establishing a close relationship with your
obstetrician and nurses, attending regular appointments, and receiving
screening tests as recommended.
"The Robbs were very motivated to do things positively
and have as successful an outcome as possible," he says. "It's
important to ask a lot of questions and be vigilant about your pregnancy."
Jessica Cerretani is a freelance health writer.
Labels: high-risk pregnancy, Magee-Womens Hospital of UPMC, pregnancy, preterm births